بررسی تأثیر مداخلۀ تمرینی شنا بر تعادل و سیستم‌های درگیر در تعادل نوجوانان دارای اختلال شنوایی با کم‌کاری دهلیزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تأثیر مداخله‌ی تمرینی شنا بر تعادل و سیستم‌های درگیر در تعادل نوجوانان دارای اختلال شنوایی با کم‌کاری دهلیزی بود.
روش‌ بررسی: 24 نفر از دختران ناشنوای مدارس استثنایی شهرستان پاکدشت استان تهران به‌صورت نمونه‌ی در دسترس در این تحقیق حضور داشتند. آزمودنی‌ها به‌صورت تصادفی به دو گروه کنترل و تجربی تقسیم شدند. ابتدا پیش‌آزمون تعادل تحت چهار شرایط حسی مختلف شامل؛ اختلال هم‌زمان حسی- پیکری و دهلیزی، بینایی و دهلیزی، حسی- پیکری و بینایی و بدون هیچ تداخل حسی، با دستگاه بایودکس گرفته شد. سپس، 12 نفر گروه تجربی (میانگین سنی 8/2±50/15) به مدت 8 هفته، هر هفته 3 جلسه تحت آموزش شنا قرار گرفتند و 12 نفر گروه کنترل (میانگین سنی 9/1±50/15) در هیچ رشته‌ی ورزشی فعالیتی نداشتند. پس از اتمام دوره‌ی مداخله‌ی تمرینی، پس‌آزمون تعادلی مشابه پیش‌آزمون به عمل آمد. تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون تحلیل واریانس چند متغیره انجام شد.
یافته‌ها: با تأیید نرمال بودن توزیع داده‌ها و همگنی واریانس‌ها، نتایج تحلیل واریانس چند متغیره نشان داد تمرینات شنا به‌طور معنی‌داری بر تعادل بدون تداخل حسی و تعادل دهلیزی تأثیرگذار است (005/0≤P).
نتیجه‌گیری: پیشنهاد می‌شود به‌منظور بهبود تعادل افراد ناشنوا آموزش شنا برای ناشنوایان به‌عنوان یک روش توانبخشی در مراکز بهداشتی درمانی، بیمارستان، مراکز توانبخشی، مدارس استثنایی و مدارس ناشنوایان مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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