تأثیر تمرینات استقامت عضلانی، هماهنگی و ترکیبی بر مهارت‌های حرکتی ظریف افراد با سندرم داون

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم رفتاری و شناختی در ورزش، دانشکده علوم ورزشی و تندرستی، شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، هیأت علمی دانشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد خوراسگان، اصفهان، ایران

3 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم رفتاری و شناختی در ورزش، دانشکده علوم ورزشی و تندرستی، شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

10.22084/rsr.2019.20302.1466

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: امروزه تمرینات ورزشی به‌عنوان روشی جدید و کاربردی برای بهبود سازگاری ­های عضلانی در کم­ توانان ذهنی معرفی شده است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر تأثیر تمرینات استقامت عضلانی، هماهنگی و ترکیبی بر مهارت­ های حرکتی ظریف افراد با سندرم داون بود.
روش بررسی: این تحقیق از نوع نیمه‌تجربی، با هدف کاربردی بود.30 فرد با سندرم داون (23 پسر و 7 دختر) با میانگین سنی 2/24 سال انتخاب شدند. با استفاده از آزمون پورد و پگبورد پیش ­آزمون گرفته شد؛ سپس شرکت ­کنندگان به سه گروه با سه برنامه مختلف تمرینی تقسیم شدند (گروه یک: تمرینات استقامتی، گروه دو: تمرینات هماهنگی، گروه سه: تمرینات ترکیبی). برنامه مداخله شامل 16 جلسه 45 دقیقه ­ای بود. هر جلسه شامل سه زمان 15 دقیقه‌ای و 5 دقیقه استراحت بین زمان‌ها بود. بعد از پایان جلسات پس‌آزمون مشابه با پیش ­آزمون گرفته شد.
یافته ­ها: نتایج آزمون تحلیل واریانس یک راهه نشان داد که همه گروه ­ها با تمرینات پیشرفت معناداری کرده ­اند (05/0p<) ولی بین تمرینات استقامت عضلانی، هماهنگی و ترکیبی تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود نداشت (05/0<p).
نتیجه ­گیری: مطابق با نتایج برای بهبود مهارت­ های حرکتی ظریف افراد سندرم داون می ­توان از سه نوع تمرین استقامتی، هماهنگی و ترکیبی استفاده کرد، اما به نظر می­رسد ترکیب تمرینات هماهنگی و استقامت عضلانی ارجح­ تر است. احتمالاً تمرینات ترکیبی باعث بهبود استقامت عضلانی و هماهنگی بین اندام­ ها به‌صورت همزمان می ­گردد.

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